Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4) that has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. It takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state. It is odorless, colorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive. Hazards include flammability after vaporization into a gaseous state, freezing and asphyxia. The liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gases, helium, water, and heavy hydrocarbons, which could cause difficulty downstream. The natural gas is then condensed into a liquid at close to atmospheric pressure by cooling it to approximately −162°C (−260°F); maximum transport pressure is set at around 25kPa (4psi).
LNG achieves a higher reduction in volume than compressed natural gas (CNG) so that the (volumetric) energy density of LNG is 2.4times greater than that of CNG or 60 percent that of diesel fuel. This makes LNG cost efficient to transport over long distances where pipelines do not exist. Specially designed cryogenic sea vessels (LNG carriers) or cryogenic road tankers are used for its transport. LNG is principally used for transporting natural gas to markets, where it is regasified and distributed as pipeline natural gas. It can be used in natural gas vehicles, although it is more common to design vehicles to use compressed natural gas. Its relatively high cost of production and the need to store it in expensive cryogenic tanks have hindered widespread commercial use. Despite these drawbacks, on energy basis LNG production is expected to hit 10% of the global crude production by 2020.(see LNG Trade)
The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation constitutes the equity stake of its owners. It represents the residual assets of the company that would be due to stockholders after discharge of all senior claims such as secured and unsecured debt. Stockholders' equity cannot be withdrawn from the company in a way that is intended to be detrimental to the company's creditors.
The stock of a corporation is partitioned into shares, the total of which are stated at the time of business formation. Additional shares may subsequently be authorized by the existing shareholders and issued by the company. In some jurisdictions, each share of stock has a certain declared par value, which is a nominal accounting value used to represent the equity on the balance sheet of the corporation. In other jurisdictions, however, shares of stock may be issued without associated par value.
Shares represent a fraction of ownership in a business. A business may declare different types (classes) of shares, each having distinctive ownership rules, privileges, or share values. Ownership of shares may be documented by issuance of a stock certificate. A stock certificate is a legal document that specifies the amount of shares owned by the shareholder, and other specifics of the shares, such as the par value, if any, or the class of the shares.
Stock is a flavoured liquid preparation. It forms the basis of many dishes, particularly soups and sauces. Making stocks involves simmering animal bones and/or meat, seafood, or vegetables in water and/or wine, adding mirepoix or other aromatics for more flavour.
Traditionally stock is made by simmering various ingredients in water. A newer approach is to use a pressure cooker. The ingredients may include some or all of the following:
Today, ready-made stock and stock cubes consisting of dried, compressed stock ingredients are readily available. These are commonly known as bouillon cubes, as cooking base in the US, or as Oxo cubes in Britain, after a common brand of stock cube sold there.
Comparison with broth
The difference between broth and stock is one of both cultural and colloquial terminology but certain definitions prevail. Stock is the liquid produced by simmering raw ingredients: solids are removed, leaving a highly flavored liquid. This yields classic stock as made from beef, veal, chicken, fish and vegetables.
It was founded in the 18th century by André Cailleau, who was succeeded in 1753 by Nicolas-Bonaventure Duchesne, who published Voltaire and Rousseau. At the beginning of the 19th century, the publisher was called "Au Temple du goût". In the middle of the century it changed hands and was eventually bought up by Pierre-Victor Stock, who ran it from 1877 to 1921 and gave it its current name.
During the Dreyfus affair, Stock published many essays on the subject, including Dreyfus's own Lettres d'un innocent. In his memoir Mémorandum d'un éditeur, Pierre-Victor Stock estimated that Stock had published around 150 works connected with the Dreyfus affair.
In the early 20th century, Stock ran into legal and financial difficulties. It was taken over in 1921 by Maurice Delamain and Jacques Chardonne, who renamed it "Stock, Delamain et Boutelleau". In 1961, Delamain and Chardonne sold Stock to Hachette.
State-run Gazprom already has a 50% plus one share stake in Sakhalin-2, which accounts for about 4% of the world's liquefied natural gas (LNG) production ...Japan has 2-3 weeks of LNG stocks held by utilities and city gas suppliers and Hagiuda has asked his U.S ... "This will tighten the LNG market materially this decade," he said.
HOUSTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Jun 29, 2022-- ... Tellurian is developing a portfolio of natural gas production, LNG marketing and trading, and infrastructure that includes an ~ 27.6 mtpa LNG export facility and an associated pipeline. Tellurian is based in Houston, Texas, and its common stock is listed on the NYSEAmerican under the symbol “TELL” ... CONTACT ... .
Cheniere Energy Inc (NYSEAMERICAN.LNG) is trading at $134 and is bullish. Previously, the stock pulled back from a high of $146 and hit a low of $120... In the last five days, the stock is up 4.32% ... We think the stock is gathering momentum to rise further ... That means that the stocks like Cheniere will continue growing the valuations.
LONDON (Reuters) – Europe’s plan to get through a winter of difficult Russian gas supply with significant imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is at risk, with U.S ... But the global LNG market has been tight due to a lack of new supply and reduced investment in recent years, with most major producers operating close to full capacity.
Freeport outage adds to LNG market tightnessAsian demand rebound means Europe will compete for LNGLNG imports seen lower in the second half of 2022Heavily loaded ports pose another riskStorage build will be a challenge ahead of winter ... LNG prices jumped some 60% this week and are seen exceeding $40 per million British thermal units (mmBtu) soon.
Problems At FreeportLNG Remain The KeyDriver For Natural Gas Markets ... At current levels, stocks are 331Bcf below the five-year average of 2,500 Bcf. The report highlights the impact of the recent explosion at Freeport LNG ... Stocks will continue to increase in the upcoming weeks.
South Korean shipbuilder Samsung Heavy Industries received the single largest order in the history of the company which analysts believed is tied to QatarEnergy’s expansion of its LNG operations. In two stock exchange filings made today, June 22, Samsung reported orders totaling $3 billion for 14 LNG carriers to be delivered in 2024 and 2026.
To meet that objective companies are investing billions of dollars to build gas infrastructure including liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminals, pipelines and setting up LNG fuelling stations ...Easy transportation of gas will also aid in setting up LNG fuelling stations and bunkering in the country.
In a disclosure to the PhilippineStockExchange (PSE), First Gen indicated that its project corporate vehicle FGEN LNGCorporation formally asked the DOE “to extend the validity of its permit to construct, expand, rehabilitate and modify (“PCERM”) for its interim offshore LNG terminal from Sept.